From near and far: Stone procurement and exchange at Çukuriçi Höyük in Western Anatolia

  • Christoph Schwall Austrian Academy of Sciences
  • Michael Brandl Austrian Academy of Sciences
  • Tatjana M. Gluhak Römisch-Germanisches Zentralmuseum
  • Bogdana Milić Austrian Academy of Sciences
  • Lisa Betina University of Copenhagen
  • Lasse Sørensen National Museum of Denmark
  • Danilo Wolf Martin-Luther University Halle-Wittenberg
  • Barbara Horejs Austrian Academy of Sciences
Keywords: Çukuriçi Höyük; Western Anatolia; Prehistory; provenance analyses; procurement strategies; chert; volcanic rocks; jadeite

Abstract


The focus of this paper are the stone tools of Çukuriçi Höyük, a prehistoric site situated at the central Aegean coast of Anatolia. The settlement was inhabited from the Neolithic, through the Late Chalcolithic and Early Bronze Age 1 periods, a period lasting from the early 7th to the early 3rd millennium BCE. A long-term interdisciplinary study of the excavated lithics with different scientific methods on various stone materials (thin section analysis, pXRF, NAA, LA-ICP-MS) offer new primary data about the procurement strategies of prehistoric societies from a diachronic perspective. The results will be presented for the first time with an overview of all source materials and their distinct use through time.

The lithic assemblages from Çukuriçi Höyük consist of a considerable variety of small finds, grinding stones and chipped stone tools. The high variability of raw materials within the different categories of tools is remarkable. In addition to stone tools manufactured from sources in the immediate vicinity of the settlement (i.e. mica-schist, limestone, marble, amphibolite, serpentinite), others are of rock types such as chert, which indicate an origin within the broader region. Moreover, volcanic rocks, notably the exceptionally high amount of Melian obsidian found at Çukuriçi Höyük, attest to the supra-regional procurement of distinct rock types. Small stone axes made of jadeite presumably from the Greek island of Syros, also indicate these far-reaching procurement strategies.

The systematic and diachronic analyses of the stone tools found at Çukuriçi Höyük has demonstrated that as early as the Neolithic period extensive efforts were made to supply the settlement with carefully selected raw materials or finished goods procured from distinct rock sources.

Author Biographies

Christoph Schwall, Austrian Academy of Sciences

Institute for Oriental and European Archaeology (OREA)
Austrian Academy of Sciences (AAS)
Hollandstrasse 11-13
1020 Vienna
Austria

Michael Brandl, Austrian Academy of Sciences

Institute for Oriental and European Archaeology (OREA)
Austrian Academy of Sciences (AAS)
Hollandstrasse 11–13
1020 Vienna
Austria

Tatjana M. Gluhak, Römisch-Germanisches Zentralmuseum

Römisch-Germanisches Zentralmuseum
Leibniz-Forschungsinstitut für Archäologie
Ernst-Ludwig-Platz 2
55116 Mainz
Germany

Bogdana Milić, Austrian Academy of Sciences

Institute for Oriental and European Archaeology (OREA)
Austrian Academy of Sciences (AAS)
Hollandstrasse 11–13
1020 Vienna
Austria

Lisa Betina, University of Copenhagen

The Saxo Institute
University of Copenhagen
Karen Blixens Plads 8
2300 Copenhagen S
Denmark

Lasse Sørensen, National Museum of Denmark

National Museum of Denmark
Ancient Cultures of Denmark and the Mediterranean
12 Frederiksholms Kanal
1220 Copenhagen K
Denmark

Danilo Wolf, Martin-Luther University Halle-Wittenberg

Institute for Geosciences and Geography
Martin-Luther University Halle-Wittenberg
Von-Seckendorff-Platz 3
06120 Halle/Saale
Germany

Barbara Horejs, Austrian Academy of Sciences

Institute for Oriental and European Archaeology (OREA)
Austrian Academy of Sciences (AAS)
Hollandstrasse 11–13
1020 Vienna
Austria

Published
01-Aug-2019
How to Cite
Schwall, C., Brandl, M., Gluhak, T. M., Milić, B., Betina, L., Sørensen, L., Wolf, D., & Horejs, B. (2019). From near and far: Stone procurement and exchange at Çukuriçi Höyük in Western Anatolia. Journal of Lithic Studies, (in press). Retrieved from http://journals.ed.ac.uk/lithicstudies/article/view/3093
Section
Articles from the 2nd Meeting of the Association for Ground Stone Tools Research