The lithic assemblages from the Palaeolithic survey research in the Megalopolis Basin, Greece

Dalila De Caro (Author)

Institute of Archaeological Sciences, University of Tübingen

Vangelis Tourloukis (Author)

Institute of Archaeological Sciences, University of Tübingen

Nicholas Thomson (Author)

Institute of Archaeological Sciences, University of Tübingen

Aristeidis Varis (Author)

Institute of Archaeological Sciences, University of Tübingen

Eleni Panagopoulou (Author)

Katerina Harvati (Author)

Institute of Archaeological Sciences, University of Tübingen

Keywords:
Survey, Palaeolithic, Southern Balkans, Lithic technology, Megalopolis

Abstract


An intensive, target-oriented surface survey conducted in the Megalopolis basin during 2012-2013 led to the discovery of several Palaeolithic sites and findspots with lithics and faunal remains, including Marathousa-1, a Lower Palaeolithic open-air elephant-butchering site, dated to ca. 400-500 ka BP. This study presents the results from the techno-typological analysis of 413 lithic artefacts collected as surface or stratified finds during the survey research. The aim of the work is to evaluate the diachronic occupation of the area in relation to the lithic technologies used, the typology of the artefacts, and the raw materials exploited. It was possible to provide a chrono-cultural attribution of 167 artefacts, ranging from the Lower Palaeolithic to the Holocene, with a significant component of the collection attributed to the Middle Palaeolithic. Several diagnostic retouched tools allow us to infer that the open-air sites were occupied comparatively more intensively during the Middle Palaeolithic period. We also provide a detailed account of the lithic assemblage from Kavia cave, a previously unstudied site identified during the survey. The high frequency of artefacts pertaining to the Upper Palaeolithic in Kavia is in line with previously identified settlement and mobility patterns of the Peloponnese, where the occupation of caves becomes more intensive from the Upper Palaeolithic onward, as attested at the sites of Klissoura, Kephalari, and Franchthi. The Upper Palaeolithic component from Kavia Cave adds new data to a meagre sample of known sites from this period. The results from the typological and technological analysis of the lithic assemblages collected during the survey in Megalopolis support the conclusions of the basin's long-term and ongoing research, indicating a relatively continuous hominin presence during the Pleistocene.

Author Biographies

Dalila De Caro, Institute of Archaeological Sciences, University of Tübingen

Paleoanthropology, Institute for Archaeological Sciences and Senckenberg Centre for Human Evolution and Paleoenvironment, Eberhard Karls University of Tübingen, Tübingen, Germany.

Vangelis Tourloukis, Institute of Archaeological Sciences, University of Tübingen

Paleoanthropology, Institute for Archaeological Sciences and Senckenberg Centre for Human Evolution and Paleoenvironment, Eberhard Karls University of Tübingen, Tübingen, Germany.

Nicholas Thomson, Institute of Archaeological Sciences, University of Tübingen

Paleoanthropology, Institute for Archaeological Sciences and Senckenberg Centre for Human Evolution and Paleoenvironment, Eberhard Karls University of Tübingen, Tübingen, Germany.

Aristeidis Varis, Institute of Archaeological Sciences, University of Tübingen

Paleoanthropology, Institute for Archaeological Sciences and Senckenberg Centre for Human Evolution and Paleoenvironment, Eberhard Karls University of Tübingen, Department of Geosciences, Rümelinstrasse 23, 72070 Tübingen, Germany

Geoarchaeology Working Group, Institute for Archaeological Sciences and Senckenberg Centre for Human Evolution and Paleoenvironment, Eberhard Karls University of Tübingen, Tübingen, Germany

Eleni Panagopoulou

Hellenic Ministry of Culture and Sports, Ephorate of Paleoanthropology-Speleology, Athens, Greece.

Katerina Harvati, Institute of Archaeological Sciences, University of Tübingen

Paleoanthropology, Institute for Archaeological Sciences and Senckenberg Centre for Human Evolution and Paleoenvironment, Eberhard Karls University of Tübingen, Tübingen, Germany.

DFG Centre for Advanced Studies "Words, Bones, Genes, Tools", Eberhard Karls University of Tübingen, Tübingen, Germany.

References

Adam, E. 1989, A technological and typological analysis of Upper Palaeolithic stone industries of Epirus, north-western Greece. British Archaeological Reports International Series 512, Oxford, 267 p.
Adam, E. 2007, Looking out for the Gravettian in Greece. PALEO, 9: 145-158. DOI: https://doi.org/10.4000/paleo.579
Aleo, A., Duches, R., Falcucci, A., Rots, V. & Peresani, M. 2021, Scraping hide in the early Upper Paleolithic: Insights into the life and function of the Protoaurignacian endscrapers at Fumane Cave. Archaeological and Anthropological Sciences, 13(137): 1-27. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s12520-021-01367-4
Anderson, L., Bon, F., Bordes, J.G., Pasquini, A., Slimak L. & Teyssandier, N. 2015, Relier des espaces, construire de nouveaux réseaux: aux origines du Protoaurignacien et des débuts du Paléolithique supérieur en Europe occidentale. In: Les systèmes de mobilité de la Préhistoire au Moyen Âge, XXXVe rencontres internationales d’archéologie et d’histoire d’Antibes (Naudinot, N., Meignen, L., Binder, D. & Querré, G., Eds.), Éditions APDCA, Antibes: p. 57-73. (in French) (“Connecting spaces, building new networks: the origins of the Protoaurignacian and the beginnings of the Upper Paleolithic in Western Europe”).
Andrefsky, W. 1998, Lithics. Macroscopic Approaches to Analysis. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 326 p.
Athanassiou, A., Michailidis, D., Vlachos, E., Tourloukis, V., Thompson, T. & Harvati, K. 2018, Pleistocene vertebrates from the Kyparíssia lignite mine, Megalopolis Basin, S. Greece: Testudines, Aves, Suiformes. Quaternary International, 497: 178-197. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.quaint.2018.06.030
Bailey, G. (Ed.) 1997, Klithi: Palaeolithic settlement and Quaternary landscapes in Northwest Greece. Cambridge, McDonald Institute for Archaeological Research, 699 p.
Bailey, G., Carter, P.L., Gamble, C.S. & Higgs, H.P. 1983, Asprochaliko and Kastritsa: further investigations of Palaeolithic settlement and economy in Epirus (North-West Greece). Proceedings of the Prehistoric Society, 49(1): 15-42. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1017/S0079497X00007945
Becker-Platen, J. D. 1964, Geologische Untersuchungen im Becken von Megalopolis, Arkadien. Unpublished Diploma thesis, Reinischen Friedrich-Wilhems-Universität, Bonn, 133 p. (in German) (“Geological investigations in the basin of Megalopolis, Arcadia”).
Binford, L. R. 1980, Willow Smoke and Dogs’ Tails: Hunter-Gatherer Settlement Systems and Archaeological Site Formation. American Antiquity, 45(1): 4-20. DOI: https://doi.org/10.2307/279653
Bludau, I. J. E., Papadopoulou, P., Iliopoulos, G., Weiss, M., Schnabel, E., Thompson, N., Tourloukis, V., Zachow, C., Kyrikou, S., Konidaris, G. E., Karkanas, P., Panagopoulou, E., Harvati, K. & Junginger, A. 2021, Lake-Level Changes and Their Paleo-Climatic Implications at the MIS12 Lower Paleolithic (Middle Pleistocene) Site Marathousa 1, Greece. Frontiers in Earth Science, 9: 1-26. DOI: https://doi.org/10.3389/feart.2021.668445
Bordes, F. 1961, Typologie du Paléolithique Ancien et Moyen. Publication de l’Institut de Préhistoire de l’Univesité de Bordeaux Mémoire 1, 108 p. (in French) (“Typology of the Lower and Middle Paleolithic”).
Borić, D., Cristiani, E., Hopkins, R., Schwenninger, J. L., Gerometta, K., French, C.A.I., Mutri, G., Ćalić, J., Dimitrijević, V., Marín-Arroyo, A.B., Jones, J.R., Stevens, R., Masciana, A., Uno, K., Richter, K.K., Antonović, D., Wehr, K., Lane, C. & White, D. 2022, Neanderthals on the Lower Danube: Middle Palaeolithic evidence in the Danube Gorges of the Balkans. Journal of Quaternary Science, 37: 142-180. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1002/jqs.3354
Conard, N. J., Soressi, M., Parkington, J. E., Wurz, S. & Yates, R. 2004, A unified lithic taxonomy based on patterns of core reduction. South African Archaeological Bulletin, 59(179): 12-16. DOI: http://hdl.handle.net/11427/17977
Darlas, A. 1994, Le Paléolithique inférieur et moyen de Grèce. L'Anthropologie, 98 (2-3): 305-328. (in French) (“The Lower and Middle Palaeolithic of Greece”).
Darlas, A. 2007, Le Moustérien de Grèce à la lumière des récentes recherches. L'Anthropologie, 111(3): 346-366. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.anthro.2007.04.001 (in French) (“The Mousterian of Greece in the light of recent research”).
Darlas, A. & de Lumley, H. 1999, Palaeolithic research in Kalamakia cave, Areopolis, Peloponnese. British School at Athens Studies: 293-302.
Darlas, A. & Psathi, E. 2016, The middle and upper Palaeolithic on the western coast of the Mani peninsula (southern Greece). In: Palaeoanthropology of the Balkans and Anatolia, Human Evolution and its Context (Harvati, K. & Roksandic, M., Eds.), Springer Dordrecht: p. 95-118. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-94-024-0874-4_7
De Caro, D., Delpiano, D. & Peresani, M. 2021, Analisi tecnologica di una concentrazione litica nel sito aurignaziano di Campon di Monte Avena (BL). Preistoria Alpina (51): 53-63. (in Italian) (“Technological analysis of a lithic concentration at the Aurignacian site of Campon di Monte Avena”). URL: https://hdl.handle.net/11392/2468477
Elefanti, P, Panagopoulou, E & Karkanas, P. 2008, The transition from the Middle to the Upper Palaeolithic in the southern Balkans: the evidence from the Lakonis I cave, Greece. Eurasian Prehist., 5: 85-96. URL: https://digitalcommons.usf.edu/kip_articles/5392
Elefanti, P. & Marshall, G. 2015, Late Pleistocene hominin adaptations in Greece. In Settlement, Society and Cognition in Human Evolution: Landscapes in Mind (Coward, F., Hosfield, R., Pope, M. & Wenban-Smith, F., Eds.), Cambridge University Press: p. 189-213. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9781139208697.012
Elefanti, P., Marshall, G., Stergiou, C. L. & Kotjabopoulou, E. 2021, Raw material procurement at Boila Rockshelter, Epirus, as an indicator of hunter-gatherer mobility in Greece during the Late Upper Palaeolithic and Early Mesolithic. Journal of Archaeological Science Reports, 35: 102719. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jasrep.2020.102719
Galanidou, N., Athanassas, C., Cole, J., Iliopoulos, G., Katerinopoulos, A., Magganas, A. & McNabb, J. 2016, The acheulian site at Rodafnidia, Lisvori, on Lesbos, Greece: 2010–2012. In: Paleoanthropology of the Balkans and Anatolia: Human Evolution and its Context (Harvati, K. & Roksandic, M., Eds.), Springer Dordrecht: p. 119-138. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-94-024-0874-4_8
Garefalakis, C., Panagopoulou, E. & Harvati, K. 2018, Late Pleistocene Neanderthal occupation of Western Mani: The evidence from the Middle Palaeolithic assemblages of Mavri Spilia. Quaternary International, 497: 4-13. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.quaint.2017.12.049.
Geneste, J. M. 1991, Systèmes techniques de production lithique: variations techno-économiques dans les processus de réalisation des outillages paléolithiques. Techniques et culture, 17-18: 1-35. (in French) (“Technical systems of lithic production: techno-economic variations in Palaeolithic tool making processes”).
Guibert-Cardin, J., Tourloukis, V., Thompson, N., Panagopoulou, E., Harvati, K., Nicaud, E. & Beyries, S. 2022, The function of small tools in Europe during the Middle Pleistocene: the case of Marathousa 1 (Megalopolis, Greece). Journal of Lithic studies, 9(1): 1-29. DOI: https://doi.org/10.2218/jls.5553
Harvati, K., Panagopoulou, E. & Runnels, C. 2009, The paleoanthropology of Greece. Evolutionary Anthropology, 18: 131-143. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1002/evan.20219
Harvati, K. & Tourloukis, V. 2013, Human evolution in the Southern Balkans. Evolutionary Anthropology Issues News Rev., 22(2): 43-45. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1002/evan.21342
Harvati, K. & Roksandic, M. (Eds.) 2016, Paleoanthropology of the Balkans and Anatolia: Human Evolution and its Context. Springer, Netherlands, 344 p.
Harvati, K., Konidaris, G. & Tourloukis, V. 2018, Paleoanthropology at the Gates of Europe: Recent research in Greece in the frame of the PaGE ERC Starting Grant project. Quaternary International, 497: 1-3. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.quaint.2018.11.024
Inizan, M. L., Reduron-Ballinger, M., Roche, H. & Tixier, J. 1999, Technology and terminology of knapped stone. Cercle de Recherches et d'Etudes Préhistorique, 190 p.
Kaczanowska, M., Kozlowski, J.K. & Sobczyk, K. 2010, Upper Palaeolithic human occupations and material culture at Klissoura Cave 1. Eurasian Prehistory, 7(2): 133-285.
Karkanas, P., White, D., Lane, S.C., Stringer, C., Davies, W., Cullen, L. V., Smith, C.V., Ntinou, M., Tsartsidou, G. & Kyparissi-Apostolika, N. 2015, Tephra chronostratigraphy and climatic events between the MIS6/5 transition and the beginning of MIS3 in Theopetra Cave, central Greece. Quaternary Science Reviews, 118: 170-181. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.quascirev.2014.05.027
Konidaris, G.E., Athanassiou, A., Tourloukis, V., Thompson, N., Giusti, D., Panagopoulou, E. & Harvati, K. 2018, The skeleton of a straight-tusked elephant (Palaeoloxodon antiquus) and other large mammals from the Middle Pleistocene butchering locality Marathousa 1 (Megalopolis basin, Greece): preliminary results. Quaternary International, 497: 65-84. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.quaint.2017.12.001
Koumouzelis, M., Ginter, B., Kozlowski, J.K., Pawlikowski, M., Bar-Yosef, O., Albert, R.M., Litynska-Zajac, M., Stworzewicz, E., Wojtal, P., Lipecki, G., Tomek, T., Bochenski, Z.M. & Pazdur, A. 2001, The Early Upper Palaeolithic in Greece: The Excavations in Klisoura Cave. Journal of Archaeological Science, 28(5): 515-539. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1006/jasc.2000.0599
Lanzinger, M. & Cremaschi, M. 1988, Flint exploitation and production at Monte Avena in the Dolomitic Region of Italian East Alps. In: Upper Pleistocene Prehistory of Western Eurasia (Dibble, H. & Montet-White, A., Eds.), University of Pennsylvania, Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology: p. 125-139.
Laplace, G. 1974, De la dynamique de l'analyse structurale ou la typologie analytique. Rivista di scienze preistoriche, 29: 3-71. (in French) (“On the dynamics of structural analysis or analytical typology”).
Leroi-Gourhan, A. 1964, Le Geste et la Parole. I, Technique et langage. Albin Michel Sciences d’Aujourd’hui, 326 p. (in French) (“Gesture and Speech. Technique and language”).
Mihailović, D. (Eds.), 2014, Paleolithic and Mesolithic Research in the Central Balkans. Serbian Archaeological Society, 159 p.
NASA JPL 2013, Shuttle Radar Topography Mission Global 1 arc second. NASA EOSDIS Land Processes DAAC. DOI: https://doi.org/10.5067/MEaSUREs/SRTM/SRTMGL1.003
Özçelik, K. 2018, Vue générale du Paléolithique moyen de la Turquie. Comptes Rendus Palevol., 17 (1-2): 107-119. (in French) (“General view of the Middle Palaeolithic of Turkey”). DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.crpv.2016.12.004
Panagopoulou, E. 1999, The Theopetra Middle Palaeolithic assemblages: their relevance to the Middle Palaeolithic of Greece and adjacent areas. British School at Athens Studies: 252-265.
Panagopoulou, E., Karkanas, P., Tsartsidou, G., Kotjabopoulou, E., Harvati, K. & Ntinou, M. 2004, Late Pleistocene Archaeological and Fossil Human Evidence from Lakonis Cave, Southern Greece. Journal of Field Archaeology, 29(3-4): 323-349. DOI: https://doi.org/10.2307/3250896
Panagopoulou, E., Tourloukis, V., Thompson, N., Athanassiou, A., Tsartsidou, G., Konidaris, G.E., Giusti, D., Karkanas, P. & Harvati, K. 2015, Marathousa 1: a new Middle Pleistocene archaeological site from Greece. Antiquity, 343: 1-8. URL: https://antiquity.ac.uk/projgall/panagopoulou343
Panagopoulou, E., Tourloukis, V., Thompson, N., Konidaris, G.E., Athanassiou, A., Giusti, D., Tsartsidou, G., Karkanas, P. & Harvati, K. 2018, The Lower Palaeolithic site of Marathousa 1, Megalopolis, Greece: Overview of the evidence. Quaternary International, 497: 33-46. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.quaint.2018.06.031
Papagianni, D. 2000, Middle Palaeolithic Occupation and Technology in Northwestern Greece. The Evidence from Open-Air Sites. British Archaeological Reports International Series 882, 232 p. DOI: https://doi.org/10.30861/9781841711492
Parkinson, W. A. & Cherry, J. F. 2010, Pylos regional archaeological project, part VIII. Lithics and Landscapes: A Messenian Perspective. Hesperia: The Journal of the American School of Classical Studies at Athens, 79(1): 1-51. URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/40835453
Pelegrin, J. 1995, Technologie lithique: le Châtelperronien de Roc-de-Combe (Lot) et de La Côte (Dordogne). Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique Éditions, Cahiers du Quaternaire, 20, 116 p. (in French) (“Lithic technology: the Châtelperronian of Roc-de-Combe (Lot) and La Côte (Dordogne)”).
Pelegrin, J. 2000, Les techniques de débitage laminaire au Tardiglaciare: critères de diagnose et quelques réflexions. In: L’Europe Centrale et Septentrionale au Tardiglaciaire. Confrontation des modèles régionaux (Valentin, B., Bodu, P., Christensen, E., Eds.), Mémoires du Musée de Préhistoire d’Ile-de-France 7: p. 73-86. (in French) (“Laminar debitage techniques in the Late Glacial: diagnostic criteria and some reflections”).
Pelegrin, J., Karlin, C. and Bodu, P. 1988, "Chaînes opératoires”: un outil pour le préhistorien, In: Technologie Préhistorique (Tixier, J., Ed.), Notes et Monographies Techniques 25: p. 55-62. (in French) (“Chaînes opératoires”: a tool for the prehistorians).
Perlès, C. 1987, Les industries lithiques taillées de Franchthi (Argolide, Grèce). Tome I: Présentation générale et industries paléolithiques. Indiana University Press, 230 p. (in French) (“The Chipped Stone Industries of Franchthi (Argolide, Greece)”). DOI: https://doi.org/10.2307/j.ctv7xbrrh
Perlès, C., Vaughan, P. C., Renfrew, C. & Aspinall, A. 1990, Les Industries lithiques taillées de Franchthi (Argolide, Grèce), Tome 2: Les Industries du Mésolithique et du Néolithique Initial, Fascicle 5. Indiana University Press, 296 p. DOI: https://doi.org/10.2307/j.ctv7xbrpj
Picin, A. 2012, Technological Change and Hunting Behavior during the Middle Paleolithic. In: Actas das IV Jornadas de Jovens em Investigação Arqueológica JIA 2011 vol. II (Cascalheira, J. & Gonçalves, C., Eds.), Universidade do Algarve: p. 182-192.
Reisch, L. 1982, The Transition from Lower to Middle Palaeolithic in Greece and the Southern Balkan. In: The Transition from Lower to Middle Palaeolithic and the Origins of Modern Man (Ronen, A., Ed.), British Archaeological Reports International Series, 151: p. 223–231.
Rodríguez, J., Willmes, C., Sommer, C. & Mateos, A. 2022, Sustainable human population density in Western Europe between 560.000 and 360.000 years ago. Scientific Reports, 12: 6907. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-022-10642-w
Runnels, C. 1988, A Prehistoric Survey of Thessaly: New Light on the Greek Middle Paleolithic. Journal of Field Archaeology, 15(3): 277-290. DOI: 10.1179/009346988791974420
Runnels, C. 1995, Review of Aegean Prehistory IV: The Stone Age of Greece from the Palaeolithic to the advent of Neolithic. American Journal of Archaeology, 99: 699-728.
Runnels, .C & van Andel, T.H. 1993a, The Lower and Middle Paleolithic of Thessaly, Greece. Journal of Field Archaeology, 20: 299-317.
Runnels, C., & van Andel, T. H. 1993b, A Handaxe from Kokkinopilos,Epirus, and its implications for the Paleolithic of Greece. Journal of Field Archaeology, 20: 191-203.
Runnels, C. & van Andel, T.H. 2005, Karstic Wetland Dwellers of Middle Palaeolithic Epirus, Greece. Journal of Field Archaeology, 30 (4): 367-384. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1179/009346905791072125
Sitlivy, V., Sobczyk, K. & Karkanas, P. 2007, Middle Palaeolithic lithic assemblages of the Klissoura cave, Peloponnesus, Greece: A comparative analysis. Archeol.Ethnol. Anthropol. Eurasia 31: 2-15. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1134/S1563011007030012
Teyssandier, N. & Zilhão, J. 2018, On the Entity and Antiquity of the Aurignacian at Willendorf (Austria): Implications for Modern Human Emergence in Europe. Journal of Paleolithic Archaeology, 1: 107-138. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s41982-017-0004-4
Thompson, N., Tourloukis, V., Panagopoulou, E. & Harvati, K. 2018, In search of Pleistocene remains at the Gates of Europe: Directed surface survey of the Megalopolis Basin (Greece). Quaternary International, 497: 22-32. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.quaint.2018.03.036.
Tixier, J. 1978, Méthode pour l’étude des outillages lithiques: notice sur les travaux scientifiques de Jacques Tixier présentée envue du grade de Docteur dès Lettres (soutenance sur travaux). Paris X: 110 p. (in French) (“Method for the study of lithic tools: notice on the scientific works of Jacques Tixier presented for the degree of Doctor of Letters (defense on works)”).
Tourloukis, V. 2009, New bifaces from the Palaeolithic site of Kokkinopilos, Greece and their stratigraphic significance. Antiquity, 83(320).
Tourloukis, V. 2010, The Early and Middle Pleistocene Archaeological Record of Greece: Current Status and Future Prospects. Doctoral Thesis, Archaeological Studies Leiden University, 23: 261 p. URL: https://hdl.handle.net/1887/16150
Tourloukis, V. 2016, On the spatio-temporal distribution of Mediterranean Lower Palaeolithic sites: a geoarchaeological perspective. In: Paleoanthropology of the Balkans and Anatolia: Human evolution and its context (Harvati, K. & Roksandic, M., Eds.), Springer, Dordrecht: p. 303-323. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-94-024-0874-4_18
Tourloukis, V. 2021, Palaeolithic archaeology: a review of recent research. Archaeological Reports, 67: 61-79. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1017/S0570608421000041
Tourloukis, V., Karkanas, P. & Wallinga, J. 2015, Revisiting Kokkinopilos: Middle Pleistocene radiometric dates for stratified archaeological remains in Greece. Journal of Archaeological Science, 57: 355-369. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jas.2015.03.012
Tourloukis, V., Thompson, N., Garefalakis, C., Karkanas, P., Panagopoulou, E. & Harvati, K. 2016, New Middle Paleolithic sites from the Mani Peninsula, southern Greece. Journal of Field Archaeology, 41(1): 1-16. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/00934690.2015.1125223.
Tourloukis, V. & Harvati, K. 2018, The Palaeolithic record of Greece: a synthesis of the evidence and a research agenda for the future. Quaternary International, 466: 48-65. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.quaint.2017.04.020
Tourloukis, V., Muttoni, G., Karkanas, P., Monesi, E., Scardia, G., Panagopoulou, E. & Harvati, K. 2018a, Magnetostratigraphic and chronostratigraphic constraints on the Marathousa 1 Lower Palaeolithic site and the Middle Pleistocene deposits of the Megalopolis basin, Greece. Quaternary International, 497: 154-69. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.quaint.2018.03.043
Tourloukis, V., Thompson, N., Panagopoulou, E., Giusti, D., Konidaris, G. & Harvati, K. 2018b, Lithic artifacts and bone tools from the Lower Palaeolithic site Marathousa 1, Megalopolis, Greece: preliminary results. Quaternary International, 497: 47-64. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.quaint.2018.05.043
Tsiftsis, E. V. 1987, Geology and Hydrogeology of the Megalopolis Basin, Peloponnese, Greece. Doctoral dissertation, University of Bristol, 174 p.
Valladas, H., Mercier, N., Froget, L., Joron, J. L., Reyss, J. L., Karkanas, P., Panagopoulou, E. & Kyparissi-Apostolika, N. 2007, TL age-estimates for the Middle Palaeolithic layers at Theopetra cave (Greece). Quaternary Geochronology, 2(1-4): 303-308. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.quageo.2006.03.014
Vinken, R. 1965, Stratigraphie und Tektonik des Beckens von Megalopolis (Peloponnes, Griechenland), Geologisches Jahrbuch, 83: 97-148. (in German) (“Stratigraphy and tectonics of the Megalopolis Basin (Peloponnese, Greece)”).
van Vugt, N., Langereis, C. G., & Hilgen, F. J. 2001, Orbital forcing in Pliocene–Pleistocene Mediterranean lacustrine deposits: dominant expression of eccentricity versus precession. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 172(3-4): 193-205.
Published
28-Feb-2024
How to Cite
De Caro, D., Tourloukis, V., Thomson, N., Varis, A., Panagopoulou, E., & Harvati, K. (2024). The lithic assemblages from the Palaeolithic survey research in the Megalopolis Basin, Greece. Journal of Lithic Studies, 11(1), 29 p. https://doi.org/10.2218/jls.7716