Microwear analysis of small recycled flakes and recycling products from the Ein-Zippori site, Lower Galilee, Israel

  • Richard W. Yerkes Ohio State University
  • Yoni Parush Tel Aviv University
  • Avi Gopher, Professor Tel Aviv University
  • Ran Barkai, Professor Tel Aviv University
Keywords: recycled artefacts; microwear analysis; late Pottery Neolithic; Wadi Rabah; Early Bronze Age


A microwear analysis of recycled lithic artefacts from late Pottery Neolithic Wadi Rabah and Early Bronze Age layers at Ein-Zippori, Israel included cores-on-flakes (COFs) which are discarded blanks made into cores, and the flakes detached from them. COFs may have microwear traces that formed before they were recycled. The focus here is on how blanks removed from recycled COFs were used. Discarded flakes were not used as cores to produce small blanks at Ein-Zippori because lithic raw material was scarce, but were COFs recycled so that small tools could be produced for specific tasks? Visible wear traces were present on 19 of 44 blanks produced from COFs. Microwear traces were similar to use wear Lemorini et al. (2015) observed on much older Lower Paleolithic recycled flakes from Qesem Cave, Israel. Most flakes struck from COFs had been used to cut and scrape meat and fresh hide (42%, n=8), but four were used to work wood (21%) and four others were used to cut, scrape, or whittle bone and wood (21%), and two were used for butchering and wood working (11%). One flake only had generic weak microwear traces (5%). These were expedient flake tools, made and used in an ad hoc fashion. Specific blanks do not seem to have been used for distinct tasks.

Author Biographies

Richard W. Yerkes, Ohio State University
Prehistoric Archaeologist currently working in Albania, Hungary, Israel, and the USA. Prevous research in Cyprus, greece, and Eygpt. Microwear analyst.
Yoni Parush, Tel Aviv University

Department of Archaeology and Near Eastern Cultures
Tel Aviv University

Avi Gopher, Professor, Tel Aviv University

Department of Archaeology and Near Eastern Cultures
Tel Aviv University

Ran Barkai, Professor, Tel Aviv University

Department of Archaeology and Near Eastern Cultures
Tel Aviv University


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How to Cite
Yerkes, R., Parush, Y., Gopher, A., & Barkai, R. (2018). Microwear analysis of small recycled flakes and recycling products from the Ein-Zippori site, Lower Galilee, Israel. Journal of Lithic Studies, 5(1). https://doi.org/10.2218/jls.2668
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