Ground stone tool assemblages at the end of the Chalcolithic period: A preliminary analysis of the Late Chalcolithic sites in the Fazael Valley

  • Haggai Cohen-Klonymus The Hebrew University of Jerusalem
  • Shay Bar University of Haifa
Keywords: Fazael, Jordan Valley, Late Chalcolithic, functional analysis, ground stone tools


The very Late Chalcolithic sites of the Fazael Valley exhibit changes in settlement patterns and material culture. This paper presents the analysis of the ground stone tool assemblages of these sites, and includes the combination of attribute analysis, functional typology, and spatial and contextual analyses, allowing comparisons both between the different sites and between different phases within the sites. The assemblages of the late sites of Fazael 2 and Fazael 7 show similar use of raw materials and tool design, which is clearly different from the assemblage of the earlier typical Ghassulian Chalcolithic site of Fazael 1. In Fazael 2, two phases revealed a shift from the use of large grinding tools to mortars and small grinding tools. In both the earlier and the later phases, the separation of activity areas within the site is clear. Grinding activity in both phases is restricted to the western side of the site, while mortars and spindle whorls were found only in the south-eastern part. Finally, a comparison with Fazael 1, as well as with other Late Chalcolithic sites, such as Gilat, 'Ein Hilu and 'En Esur, show that the large number of mortars found in Fazael 2 and Fazael 7 is unique, and may hint at a shift to different subsistence strategies appearing in this region in the latest phases of the Chalcolithic period. 

Author Biographies

Haggai Cohen-Klonymus, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem
The Hebrew University of Jerusalem
Shay Bar, University of Haifa
Zinman Institute of Archaeology
University of Haifa


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How to Cite
Cohen-Klonymus, H., & Bar, S. (2016). Ground stone tool assemblages at the end of the Chalcolithic period: A preliminary analysis of the Late Chalcolithic sites in the Fazael Valley. Journal of Lithic Studies, 3(3), 103-123.
Presented at the 1st Meeting of the Association for Ground Stone Tools Research