Stones in Motion: Cost units to understand flint procurement strategies during the Upper Palaeolithic in the south-western Pyrenees using GIS

  • Alejandro Prieto Department of Geography, Prehistory and Archaeology. Faculty of Arts, University of the Basque
  • Maite García-Rojas Department of Geography, Prehistory and Archaeology. Faculty of Arts, University of the Basque
  • Aitor Sánchez Department of Geography, Prehistory and Archaeology. Faculty of Arts, University of the Basque
  • Aitor Calvo Department of Geography, Prehistory and Archaeology. Faculty of Arts, University of the Basque
  • Eder Dominguez-Ballesteros Department of Geography, Prehistory and Archaeology. Faculty of Arts, University of the Basque
  • Javier Ordoño Department of Geography, Prehistory and Archaeology. Faculty of Arts, University of the Basque
  • Maite Iris García-Collado Department of Geography, Prehistory and Archaeology. Faculty of Arts, University of the Basque
Keywords: Upper Palaeolithic, South-Western Pyrenees, flint procurement, GIS, cost, territorial management, mobility patterns

Abstract


Studies on lithic resource management –mainly flint– by prehistoric groups south of the western Pyrenees have significantly increased during the past decades. These studies usually focus on identifying outcrops and characterising the different varieties found at archaeological sites. However, the understanding of mobility and territorial management patterns based on raw materials is still very limited and has only been tackled in terms of lineal distance.

This paper proposes a methodological approach for the territorial analysis of flint distribution with the three following aims: 1) to determine the expansion ranges of each variety of flint from its outcrop; 2) to spatially relate these outcrops with archaeological sites; and 3) to improve our knowledge on the catchment strategies of Upper Palaeolithic groups.

The methodological tool chosen to fulfil these objectives is the Geographic Information System (GIS), because it allows to relate spatially the flint outcrops and flint varieties identified at archaeological sites based on: 1) isocost maps showing the cost of expansion for each variety of flint across the territory built on topography; 2) the quantification of the cost of expansion using Cost Units (CU); and 3) the relationship between the percentage of each variety of flint at each archaeological site and the cost of accessing its outcrop. In order to demonstrate that cost is a powerful way to relate spatially raw material distribution and archaeological sites with outcrops, we contrasted its results with the ones obtained by more classic means (Euclidean distance and distance across the most optimal route). It was therefore shown that cost is better at explaining the spatial relationship between flint outcrops and archaeological sites, which, in turn, provides new data on catchment strategies, mobility patterns and territorial management of Upper Palaeolithic groups.

References

Aguirre, M. 2000, El yacimiento paleolítico de Antoliñako koba (Gautegiz-Arteaga, Bizkaia): secuencia estratigráfica y dinámica industrial. Avance de las campañas de excavación 1995-2000. Illunzar, 4: 39-81. (in Spanish) ("The Palaeolithic of Antoliñako koba (Gautegiz Arteaga, Bizkaia): stratigraphic sequence and industrial dynamics. An advance to 1995-2000 excavation seasons")
Aguirre, M. 2012, Ocupaciones gravetienses de Antoliñako koba: aproximación preliminar a su estratigrafía, cronología e industrias. In: Pensando el Gravetiense: Nuevos datos para la región cantábrica en su contexto peninsular y pirenáico (De las Heras, C., Lasheras, J.A., Arrizabalaga, A. & de la Rasilla, M., Eds.) Monografías del Museo Nacional y Centro de Investigación de Altamira Vol. 23, Ministerio de Educación y Cultura., Madrid: p. 216-228. (in Spanish) ("Gravettian occupations of Antoliñako koba: preliminary approach to the stratigraphy, chronology and industries")
Altuna, J., Mariezkurrena, K. & Ríos, J. 2011, Ocupaciones Humanas en Aitzbitarte III (País Vasco) 33.600-18.400 BP (Zona de entrada a la cueva). EKOB Euskal Kultura Ondare Bilduma Vol. 5, Eusko Jaurlaritzaren Argitalpen Zerbitzu Nagusia, Vitoria-Gasteiz, 536 p. (in Spanish) ("The human occupation of Aitzbitarte III (Basque Country) 33.600-18.400 (Entrance of the cave area)")
Arias, P. 1992, Estrategias de aprovechamiento de las materias primas líticas en la costa oriental de Asturias (VIII-III milenios A.C.). In: Tecnología y Cadenas Operativas Líticas (Mora, R., Ed.) Treballs d´Arqueología Vol. 1, Universidad Autónoma de Barcelona, Barcelona: p. 37-56. (in Spanish) ("Lithic raw materials exploitation in the Western coastal area of Asturias (8th-3rd Millennia B.C.)")
Arrizabalaga, A. 2007, Frontières naturelles, administratives et épistémologiques: L'unité d'analyse dans l'archéologie du Paléolithique (dans le cas basque). In: Frontières naturelles et frontières culturelles dans les Pyrénées préhistoriques (Cazals, N., González, J. & Terradas, X., Eds.), PubliCan-Ediciones de la Universidad de Cantabria, Santander: p. 27-37. (in French) ("Natural, administrative and epistemological boundaries: The unit of analysis in Paleolithic archeology (in the Basque case)")
Arrizabalaga, A. 2009, The Middle to Upper Paleolithic Transition on the Basque Crossroads: Main Sites, Key Issues. Mitteilungen der Gesellschaft für Urgeschichte, 18: 39-70.
Arrizabalaga, A. & Altuna, J., (Eds.) 2000, Labeko Koba (Arrasate, País Vasco): Hienas y humanos en los albores del Paleolítico superior. Munibe Vol. 52, Sociedad de ciencias Aranzadi, San Sebastián-Donostia, 395 p. (in Spanish) ("Labeko Koba (Arrasate, Basque Country): Hyenas and humans at the dawn of Upper Palaeolithic") URL: http://www.aranzadi.eus/fileadmin/docs/Munibe/2000001395AA.pdf
Arrizabalaga, A., Álvarez-Fernández, E. & Iriarte-Chiapusso, M.J. 2011, Spondylus sp. at Lezetxiki cave (Basque Country, Spain): First evidence of its use in symbolic behaviour during Aurignacian in Europe. In: Spondylus in Prehistory: New data & Approaches-Contributions to the Archaeology of Shell Technologies (Ifantidis, F. & Nikolaidou, M., Eds.), BAR International Series 2216, Archaeopress, Oxford: p. 11-16.
Arrizabalaga, A., Calvo, A., Elorrieta, I., Tapia, J. & Tarriño, A. 2014, Where to and what for? Mobility patterns and the management of lithic resources by Gravettian hunter-gatherers in the Western Pyrenees. Journal of Anthropological Research, 70: 233-261. doi:10.3998/jar.0521004.0070.204
Arrizabalaga, A. & Iriarte-Chiapusso, M.J. 2010a, El Gravetiense en la encrucijada. Actualización de la información y propuesta de relectura para el caso vasco. In: Cuaternario y Arqueología: Homenaje a Francisco Giles Pacheco (Mata Almonte, E., Ed.), Diputación Provincial de Cádiz, Servicio de Publicaciones: Asociación Profesional del Patrimonio, Cádiz: p. 133-146. (in Spanish) ("The Gravettian at the crossroad. Information update and rereading proposal for the Basque case")
Arrizabalaga, A. & Iriarte-Chiapusso, M.J. 2010b, El Paleolítico superior inicial en el siglo XXI: Dos décadas de avances en la encrucijada vasca. In: El Paleolítico superior en la Península Ibérica: novedades del siglo XXI (Fullola, J.M., Mangado, J. & Tejero, M., Eds.), SERP, Barcelona: p. 311-335. (in Spanish) ("The Early Upper Palaeolithic in the 21st century.Two decades of advances in the Basque crossroad")
Arrizabalaga, A., Iriarte-Chiapusso, M.J. & Ordoño, J. 2013, Rivers, Mountains and Footpaths: the Basque Crossroads in the Framework of Palaeolithic Settlement in the Iberian Peninsula. In: Pleistocene foragers on the Iberian Peninsula: their culture and environment. Festschrift in honour of Gerd-Christian Weniger for his Sixtieth Birthday (Pastoors, A. & Auffermann, B., Eds.), Wissenschaftliche Schriften des Neanderthal Museum, Mettmann: p. 25-34.
Aubry, T., Luís, L., Mangado, J. & Matias, H. 2012, We will be known by the tracks we leave behind: Exotic lithic raw materials, mobility and social networking among the Côa Valley foragers (Portugal). Journal of Anthropological Science, 31: 528-550. doi:10.1016/j.jaa.2012.05.003
Baceta, J.I. 1996, El Maastrichtiense superior, Paleoceno e Ilerdiense inferior de la Región Vasco-Cantábrica: secuencias deposicionales, facies y evolución paleogeográfica. Tesis Doctoral. Departamento de Estratigrafía y Paleontología, Universidad del País Vasco/Euskal Herriko Universitatea, Bilbao, 372 p. (in Spanish) ("Upper Maastrichtian, Paleocene and Lower Ilerdence from the Basque-Cantabrian Region: depositional sequences, facies and paleogeographical evolution")
de Barandiarán, J.M. 1976, Recapitulación y apéndice. In: Obras Completas (de Barandiarán, J.M., Ed.), Biblioteca de la Gran Enciclopedia Vasca Vol. 9 (Vasconia antigua: La cueva de Santimamiñe), Gran Enciclopedia Vasca, Bilbao: p. 421-475. (in Spanish) ("Summing-up and appendix. Complete works")
Bernabeu, J., Orozco, T. & Terradas, X., (Eds) 1998, Los recursos abióticos en la Prehistoria. Caracterización, aprovisionamiento e intercambio, Collecció Oberta Vol. 2. Universitat de Valencia, Valencia, 188 p. (in Spanish) ("Abiotic resources in Prehistory. Characterization, catchment and interchange")
Binford, L.R. 1982, The archaeology of place. Journal of Anthropological Archaeology, 1(1): 5-31. doi:10.1016/0278-4165(82)90006-X
Binford, L.R. 1983, Long-term land use patterns: some implications for archaeology. In: Working at Archaeology (Binford, L.R., Ed.), Studies in Archaeology, Academic Press, New York: p. 379-386.
Binford, L.R. 2001, Constructing Frames of Reference. An Analytical Method for Archaeological Theory Building Using Hunter-gatherer and Environmental Data Sets. University of California Press, Berkeley, 563 p.
Bourguignon, L. & Turq, A. 2008, Territoires lithologiques et axes de circulation au Paléolithique dans le nord-est aquitain. Archéopages, 21: p. 7-15. (in French) ("Lithological territories and directions of circulation in the Paleolithic in the Northeast of Aquitania")
Burke, A. 2004, Alternate Models of Spatial Organisation of Pleistocene Hunter-Gatherers. In: Hunters and Gatherers in Theory and Archaeology (Crothers, G.M., Ed.), Center for Archaeological Investigations, Southern Illinois University, Carbondale: p. 192-210.
Calvo, A. 2012, El yacimiento gravetiense al aire libre de Ametzagaina (Donostia, País Vasco). Los tecno-complejos líticos del Conjunto Oeste. CKQ: Estudios de Cuaternario/Kuaternario Ikasketak/Quaternary Studies, 2: 15-32. (in Spanish) ("The gravettian open air site of Ametzagaina (Donostia, Basque Country). The lithic techno-complexes of the Conjunto Oeste")
Calvo, A., Tapia, J., Arrizabalaga, A. & Iriarte-Chiapusso, M.J. 2013, El yacimiento de Ametzagaina (Donostia, País Vasco). Un campamento gravetiense al aire libre en el Cantábrico. In: Pensando el Gravetiense: Nuevos datos para la región cantábrica en su contexto peninsular y pirenáico (De las Heras, C., Lasheras, J.A., Arrizabalaga, A. & de la Rasilla, M., Eds.) Monografías del Museo Nacional y Centro de Investigación de Altamira Vol. 23, Ministerio de Educación y Cultura, Madrid: p. 229-241. (in Spanish) ("The archaeological site of Ametzagaina (Donostia, Basque Country). A Gravettian open air campsite in the Cantabrian region")
Close, A.E. 1996, Carry the weight: The use and transportation of stone tools. Current Anthropology, 37: 545-553. Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/2744555
Connolly, J. & Lake, M., (Eds) 2006, Geographical Information Systems in Archaeology, Cambridge Manuals in Archaeology. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 338 p.
Corchón, M.S., Martínez, J. & Tarriño, A. 2009, Mobilité, territoires et relations culturelles au début du Magdalénien moyen cantabrique: nouvelles perspectives. In: Le concept de territoires dans le Paléolithique supérieur européen. Actes du XVe Congrès mondial (Lisbonne, 4–9 septembre 2006) (Djindjian, F., Kozlowski, J. & Bicho, N., Eds.), BAR International Series Vol. 1938, Archaeopress, Oxford: p. 217-230. (in French) ("Mobility, territoriality and cultural relations at the beginning of the Cantabrian Middle Magdalenian: New perspectives")
Coward, F.S. 2004, Transitions, Change and Identity: the Middle and Upper Palaeolithic of Vasco-Cantabrian Spain. Ph.D. dissertation, University of Southampton, Southampton, 473 p.
Demars, P.Y. 1982, L'utilisation du silex au Paléolithique supérieur: choix, approvisionnement, circulation. L'exemple du bassin de Brive. Cahiers du Quaternaire Vol. 5, CNRS, París, 253 p. (in French) ("The use of flint in the Upper Palaeolithic: Selection, catchment and circulation. The example of Brive valley")
Djindjian, F. 2009, Le concept de territoires pour les chasseurs cueilleurs du Paléolithique supérieur européen. In: Le concept de territoires dans le Paléolithique supérieur européen. Actes du XVe Congrès mondial (Lisbonne, 4–9 septembre 2006) (Djindjian, F., Kozlowski, J. & Bicho, N., Eds.), BAR International Series Vol. 1938, Archaeopress, Oxford: p. 3-25. (in French) ("The concept of territories for the hunter-gatherers societies in European Upper Palaeolithic")
Djindjian, F., Kozlowski, J. & Otte, M. 1999, Le Paléolithique supérieur en Europe. Armand Colin, Paris, 474 p. (in French) ("The Upper Palaeolithic in Europe")
Fábrega, P. & Parcero, C. 2007, Proposals for an archaeological analysis of pathways and movement. Archeologia e Calcolatori, 18: 121-140. URL: http://soi.cnr.it/archcalc/indice/PDF18/7_Fabrega.pdf
Fairén, S. 2004, ¿Se hace camino al andar? Influencia de las variables medioambientales y culturales en el cálculo de caminos óptimos mediante SIG. Trabajos de Prehistoria, 61(2): 25-40. (in Spanish) ("Is there any way out there? Environmental and cultural influences in computing Least-Cost Path with GIS"). doi:10.3989/tp.2004.v61.i2.41
Fernández, J.F. 2010, Una aportación desde la arqueología del paisaje al conocimiento del primer poblamiento humano del Valle del Trubia. Estudio geoarqueológico y análisis SIG del territorio. Ediciones de la Universidad de Oviedo, Oviedo, 198 p. (in Spanish) ("The first human settlement in the Trubia valley through landscape archaeology approach. Geoarchaeology and GIS analyses")
Foucher, P. & San Juan-Foucher, C. 2008, Du silex, de l’os et des coquillages : matières et espaces géographiques dans le Gravettien pyrénéen. In: Space and Time: Which Diachronies, Which Synchronies, Which Scales? / Typology vs. Technology. Actes du XVe Congrès Mondial de l’Union Internationale des Sciences Préhistoriques et Protohistoriques (UISPP) de Lisbonne (Aubry, T., Almeida, F., Araújo, A.C. & Tiffagom, M., Eds.), BAR International Series 1831, Archaeopress, Oxford, England: p. 45-55. (in French) ("Of flint, bone and shells: Materials and geographical areas in the Pyrenean Gravettien")
García, A. 2010, Patrones de asentamiento y ocupación del territorio en el Cantábrico Oriental al final del Pleistoceno. Una aproximación mediante SIG. Doctoral Thesis. Departamento de Ciencias Históricas, Universidad de Cantabria, Santander, 395 p. (in Spanish) ("Settlement and occupation pattern in Eastern Cantabrian region at the end of the Pleistocene. An approach through GIS") URI: http://hdl.handle.net/10902/2315
Geneste, J.M., Castel, J.C. & Chadelle, J.P. 2008, From physical to social landscapes: multidimensional approaches to the archaeology of social place in the European Upper Palaeolithic. In: Handbook of Landscape Archaeology (David, B. & Thomas, J., Eds.), Left Coast Press Inc., Walnut Creek, California: p. 228-236.
Geneste, J.M. & Rigaud, J.P. 1977, Matières premières lithiques et occupation de l´espace. In: Approche écologique de l´homme fossile (Laville, H. & Renault-Miskovsky, J., Eds.) Supplement au Bulletin AFEQ Vol. 47, Universite Pierre et Marie Curie, Paris: p. 205-218. (in French) ("Lithic raw materials and use of space")
Grove, M. 2009, Hunter-gatherer movement patterns: Causes and constraints. Journal of Anthropological Archaeology, 28: 222-233. doi:10.1016/j.jaa.2009.01.003
Güimil-Fariña, A. & Parcero-Oubiña, C. 2015, “Dotting the joins”: a non-reconstructive use of Least Cost Paths to approach ancient roads. The case of the Roman roads in the NW Iberian Peninsula. Journal of Archaeological Science, 54: 31-44. doi:10.1016/j.jas.2014.11.030
Hamilton, M.J., Milne, B.T., Walker, R.S., Burger, O. & Brown, J.H. 2007, The complex structure of hunter–gatherer social networks. Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, 274: 2195-2203. doi:10.1098/rspb.2007.0564
IGME 2010a, MAGNA 2ª Ed., Algorta 37-4. Instituto Geológico y Minero de España, Madrid. (in Spanish) (“MAGNA (Geological map of Spain) 2nd, Algorta”)
IGME 2010b, MAGNA 2ª Ed., Altsasu 114-3. Institito Geológico y Minero de España, Madrid. (in Spanish) (“MAGNA (Geological map of Spain) 2nd , Altsasu”)
IGME 2010c, MAGNA 2ª Ed., Treviño 138-3. Instituto Geográfico Minero de España, Madrid. (in Spanish) (“MAGNA (Geological map of Spain) 2nd, Treviño”)
IGN 2014, Centro de Descargas del Instituto Geográfico Nacional Español. (in Spanish) (“Download Center from the National Geographical Institute of Spain”) Retrieved: 18 December 2014. URL: http://centrodedescargas.cnig.es/CentroDescargas/
Kantner, J. 2012, Realism, Reality and Routes. Evaluating Cost-Surface and Cost-Path Algorithms. In: Least Cost Analysis of Social Landscapes: Archaeological Case Studies (White, D. & Surface-Evans, S., Eds.), The University of Utah Press, Salt Lake City: p. 225-238.
Kelly, R.L. 1992, Mobility/Sedentism: Concepts, Archaeological Measures, and Effects. Annual Review of Anthropology, 21: 43-66. doi:10.2307/2155980
Kelly, R.L. 1995, The foraging spectrum. Diversity in hunter-gatherer lifeways. Percheron Press, New York, 446 p.
Kramer, P.A. 2010, The Effect on Energy Expenditure of Walking. American Journal of Human Biology, 22: 497-507. doi:10.1002/ajhb.21027
Langmuir, E. 1984, Mountaincraft and Leadership. Scottish Sports Council, Glasgow, 361 p.
López Quintana, J.C., (Ed), 2011, La cueva de Santimamiñe revisión y actualización (2004-2006), Kobie-Excavaciones Arqueológicas en Bizkaia Vol. 1, Diputación Foral de Bizkaia, Bilbao, 446 p. (in Spanish) ("Santimamiñe cave: Revision and update (2004-2006)")
López Romero, R. 2005, Cálculo de rutas óptimas mediante SIG en el territorio de la ciudad celtibérica de Segeda. Propuesta metodológica. SALDVIE, 5: 95-111. (in Spanish) ("Calculation of optimal path in the territory of the celtiberic city of Segeda. Methodological proposal")
Llobera, M. 2000, Understanding movement: a pilot model towards the sociology of movement. In: Beyond the Map. Archaeology and Spatial Technologies (Lock, G., Ed.), IOS Press, Amsterdam: p. 65-83.
Llobera, M., Fábrega-Álvarez, P. & Parcero-Oubiña, C. 2011, Order in Movement: a GIS approach to accessibility. Journal of Archaeological Science, 38: 843-851. doi:10.1016/j.jas.2010.11.006
Mangado, J. 2006, El aprovechamiento en las materias primas líticas: Hacia una caracterización paleocultural de los comportamientos paleoeconómicos. Trabajos de Prehistoria, 63(2): 79-91. (in Spanish) ("The procurement of lithic raw materials: Towards a paleocultural characterization of paleoconomic behaviour"). doi:10.3989/tp.2006.v63.i2.18
Marín, A.B. 2008, Patrones de movilidad y control del territorio en el Cantábrico Oriental durante el Tardiglaciar. Trabajos de Prehistoria, 65: 29-45. (in Spanish) ("Mobility patterns and control of the Eastern Cantabrian territory during Late Last Glacial"). doi:10.3989/tp.2008.v65.i1.134
Marín, A.B. 2009, The Use of Optimal Foraging Theory to Estimate Late Glacial Site Catchment Areas from a Central Place: The Case of Eastern Cantabria. Journal of Anthropological Archaeology, 28(1): 27-36. doi:10.1016/j.jaa.2008.11.001
Mathey, B. 1982, El Cretácico Superior del Arco Vasco. In: El Cretácico de España, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Madrid: 111-135 p. (in Spanish) ("Upper Cretaceous in the Basque Region")
Minnetti, A.E. 1995, Optimum Gradient of Mountain Paths. Journal of Applied Physiology, 79(5): 1698-1703. URL: http://jap.physiology.org/content/79/5/1698.article-info
Murrieta-Flores, P.A. 2010, Travelling in a Prehistoric Landscape: Exploring the Influences that Shaped Human Movement. In: Making History Interactive. Computer Applications and Quantitative Methods in Archaeology (CAA), Proceedings of the 37th International Conference, Williamsburg, Virginia, United States of America, March 22-26, 2009 (Frischer, B., Webb Crawford, J. & Koller, D., Eds.), BAR International Series 2079, Archaeopress, Oxford: p. 258-276.
Murrieta-Flores, P.A., Wheatley, D. & García Sanjuán, L. 2009, Movilidad y vías de paso en los paisajes prehistóricos: megalitos y vías pecuarias en Almadén de la plata. In: Tecnologías de información geográfica y análisis arqueológico del territorio. Actas del V Simposio Internacional de Arqueología de Mérida (Mayoral Herrera, V. & Celestino Pérez, S., Eds.), Instituto de Arqueología-Mérida. CSIC-Junta de Extremadura-Consorcio de Mérda, Mérida: p. 1-16. (in Spanish) ("Mobility and routes in prehistoric landscapes: megalithic and cattle path in Alamaden de la Plata (Sevilla, Spain)")
Pandolf, K.B., Burse, R.L. & Goldman, R.F. 1977, Role of Physical Fitness in Heat Acclimatization, Decay and Reinduction. Ergonomics, 20: 399-408. doi:10.1080/00140137708931642
Parcero, C., Fábrega, P., Güimil, A., Fonte, J. & Valdez, J. 2009, Castros, caminos, rutas y ocupación del espacio. Modelización y análisis de las formas de movilidad asociadas a los asentamientos de la Edad del Hierro a través de herramientas SIG. In: Arte rupestre, paleoambiente y paisaje. Miradas interdisciplinares sobre Campo Lameiro (Criado, F. & Martínez Cortizas, A., Eds.), TAPA, CSIC, Santiago: p. 171-186. (in Spanish) ("Fortification, paths, routes and settlement in the space. Modelization and analysis of the mobility associated to Iron Age settlement through GIS")
Rissetto, J.D. 2009, Late Pleistocene Hunter-Gatherer mobility patterns and lithic exploitation in Eastern Cantabria (Spain). Ph.D. Dissertation. Department of Anthropology, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, 336 p.
Rissetto, J.D. 2012, Using Least Cost Path Analysis to Reinterpret Late Upper Paleolithic Hunter-Gatherer Procurement Zones in Northern Spain. In: Least Cost Analysys of Social Landscapes. Archaeological Case Studies (White, D.A. & Surface-Evans, S.L., Eds.), University of Utah Press, Salt Lake City: p. 11-31.
Sarabia Rogina, P. M., 1995. Las estrategias de aprovisionamiento de materias primas líticas en la transición del paleolítico medio-superior en Cantabria. In: Actas del XXII Congreso Nacional de Arqueología: Vigo 1993 Vol. 1, Xunta de Galicia, Santiago de Compostela: p. 357-366.
Simonnet, R. 1996, Approvisionnement en silex au Paléolithique supérieur: déplacements et caractéristiques physionomiques des paysages, l´exemple des Pyrénées Centrales. In: Pyrénées Préhistoriques. Arts et Sociétés, actes du 118e congrès national des sociétés historiques et scientifiques, Pau 1993 (Delporte, H. & Clottes, J., Eds.), Editions du CTHS, Paris: p. 117-128. (in French) ("Flint procurement in the Upper Palaeolithic: movements and physionomic characterization of the landscape, the example of Central Pyrenees")
Surface-Evans, S. L. & White, D.A., An Introduction to the Least Cost Analysis of Social Landscape. In: Least Cost Analysys of Social Landscapes. Archaeological Case Studies (White, D.A. & Surface-Evans, S.L., Eds.), University of Utah Press, Salt Lake City: p. 1-7.
Tapia, J., Arrizabalaga, A., Iriarte-Chiapusso, M.J. & Calvo, A. 2009, El campamento gravetiense de Ametzagaina (Donostia, País Vasco). Un avance a su estudio arqueológico. Munibe, 60: 99-115. (in Spanish) ("The Gravettian camp-site of Ametzagaina (San Sebastián, Spain). A first analysis on the site") URL: http://www.aranzadi.eus/fileadmin/docs/Munibe/2009099115AA.pdf
Tarriño, A. 2000, Estudio de la procedencia de los sílex recuperados en el yacimiento de Labeko Koba (Arrasate, País Vasco). In: Labeko Koba (País Vasco): Hienas y Humanos en los albores del Paleolítico superior (Arrizabalaga, Á. & Altuna, J., Eds.), Munibe Vol. 52, p. 345-354. (in Spanish) ("Provenance analysis of the chert from the site of Labeko Koba (Arrasate, Basque Country)") URL: http://www.aranzadi.eus/fileadmin/docs/Munibe/2000345354AA.pdf
Tarriño, A. 2006, El sílex en la cuenca vasco-cantábrica y Pirineo navarro: caracterización y su aprovechamiento en la Prehistoria. Monografías del Museo Nacional y Centro de Investigación de Altamira Vol. 21, Minesterio de Educación y Cultura, Madrid, 263 p. (in Spanish) ("Flint in the Basque-Cantabrian basin and the Pyrenees Navarro: characterization and its use in prehistory")
Tarriño, A. 2011a, Procedencia de los sílex de la cueva de Aitzbitarte-III (Rentería, Gipuzkoa). In: Ocupaciones humanas en Aitzbitarte III (País Vasco) 33.600-18.400 BP (Altuna, J., Mariezkurrena, K. & Ríos, J., Eds.), EKOB Euskal Kultura Ondare Bilduma Vol. 5, Vitoria-Gasteiz: p. 353-373. (in Spanish) ("Provenance of flint from Aitzbitarte-III Cave (Rentería, Gipuzkoa)")
Tarriño, A. 2011b, Procedencia de los sílex de la industria lítica del yacimiento en cueva de Santimamiñe. In: La cueva de Santimamiñe: Revisión y actualización (2004-2006) (López Quintana, J.C., Ed.), Diputación Foral de Bizkaia, Bilbao: p. 281-290. (in Spanish) ("Provenance of flint from Santimamiñe cave (Kortezubi, Bizkaia)")
Tarriño, A., Bon, F. & Normand, C. 2007a, Disponibilidad del Sílex como materia prima en la Prehistoria del Pirineo occidental. In: Frontières culturelles dans les Pyrénées préhistoriques (Cazals, N., González Urquijo, J. & Terradas, X., Eds.), PubliCan-Ediciones de la Universidad de Cantabria, Cantabria: p. 103-123. (in Spanish) ("The availability of flint as raw material in the western Pyrenees Prehistory")
Tarriño, A., Cava, A. & Barandiarán, I. 2013, Recursos líticos en las industrias del Solutrense Cantábrico: El caso de Altamira (Cantabria, España). Revue Archéologique du Centre de la France 21: 261-272. (in Spanish) ("Lithic resources in the Cantabrian Solutrean assemblages: The Altamira case (Cantabria, Spain)")
Tarriño, A. & Elorrieta, I. 2013, La explotación de los recursos abióticos durante el Gravetiense cantábrico. Primeros datos sobre el Pirineo occidental y la cuenca vasco-cantábrica. In: Pensando el Gravetiense: Nuevos datos para la región cantábrica en su contexto peninsular y pirenáico (de las Heras, C., Lasheras, J.A., Arrizabalaga, A. & de la Rasilla, M., Eds.) Monografías del Museo Nacional y Centro de Investigación de Altamira Vol. 23, Ministerio de Educación y Cultura, Madrid: p. 330-347. (in Spanish) ("Exploitation of abiotic resources during the Cantabrian Gravettian. First data in Western Pyrenees and Basque-Cantabrian Bassin")
Tarriño, A., Elorrieta, I. & García-Rojas, M. 2015, Flint as raw material in prehistoric times: Cantabrian Mountain and Western Pyrenees data. Quaternary International, 364: 94-108. doi:10.1016/j.quaint.2014.10.061
Tarriño, A. & Normand, C. 2002, Procedencia de los restos líticos en el Auriñaciense antiguo (C 4b1) de Isturitz (Pyrénées-Atlantiques, Francia). Espacio, Tiempo y Forma, Serie I, nueva época Prehistoria y Arqueología, 15: 135-143. (in Spanish) ("Provenance of lithic assemblage in the Ancient Aurignacien (C 4b1) from Isturitz (Pyrénées-Atlantiques, France)") doi:10.5944/etfi.15.2002.4741
Tarriño, A., Olivares, M., Etxebarria, N., Baceta, J.I., Larrasoaña, J., Yusta, I., Pizarro, J., Cava, A., Barandiarán, I. & Murelaga, X. 2007b, El sílex de tipo "Urbasa": Caracterización petrológica y geoquímica de un marcador litológico en yacimientos arqueológicos del Suroeste europeo durante el Pleistoceno superior y Holoceno inicial. Geogaceta, 43: 127-130. (in Spanish) ("The “Urbasa” type flint. Main petrological and geochemical features of a lithological marker in late Pleistocene and earliest Holocene archaeological sites") URI: http://hdl.handle.net/10272/8355
Terradas, X. 2002, La gestión de los recursos minerales en las sociedades cazadoras-recolectoras. Treballs D´Etnoarqueologia, Vol. 4, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas, Madrid, 177 p. (in Spanish) ("The management of mineral resources in hunter-gatherer societies")
Tobler, W. 1993, Three presentations on geographical analysis and modeling. Technical Report Vol. 93, Issue 1, National Center for Geographic Information & Analysis (U.S.), University of California, Santa Barbara, California. URL: http://www.ncgia.ucsb.edu/Publications/Tech_Reports/93/93-1.PDF
Turrero, P., Domínguez-Cuesta, M.J., Jiménez-Sánchez, M. & García-Vázquez, E. 2013, The spatial distribution of Palaeolithic human settlements and its influence on palaeoecological studies: a case from Northern Iberia. Journal of Archaeological Science, 40(12): 4127-4138. doi:10.1016/j.jas.2013.06.003
van Leusen, P.M. 2002, Pattern to Process: Methodological Investigations into the Formation and Interpretation of Spatial Patterns in Archaeological Landscapes. Ph.D. dissertation. Institute of Archaeology, University of Groningen, Groningen, 356 p.
Vialou, D. 2005, Territoires: sédentarités et mobilités. In: Comportements des hommes du Paléolithique moyen et supérieur en Europe: territoires et milieux (Vialou, D., Renault-Miskovsky, J. & Patou-Mathis, M., Eds.) ERAUL 111, Université de Liège, Liège: p. 75-86. (in French) ("Behavior of Middle and Upper Palaeolithic human in Europe: territories and environments")
Whallon, R. 2006, Social networks and information: non-”utilitarian” mobility among hunter-gatherers. Journal of Anthropological Archaeology, 25: 259-279. doi:10.1016/j.jaa.2005.11.004
Wheatley, D. & Gillings, M. 2002, Spatial Technology and Archaeology: The Archaeological Applications of GIS. Taylor & Francis, New York, 269 p.
White, D. & Surface-Evans, S. (Eds) 2012, Least Cost Analysis of Social Landscapes: Archaeological Case Studies. The University of Utah Press, Salt Lake City, 268 p.
Published
15-Mar-2016
How to Cite
Prieto, A., García-Rojas, M., Sánchez, A., Calvo, A., Dominguez-Ballesteros, E., Ordoño, J., & García-Collado, M. (2016). Stones in Motion: Cost units to understand flint procurement strategies during the Upper Palaeolithic in the south-western Pyrenees using GIS. Journal of Lithic Studies, 3(1), 133-160. https://doi.org/10.2218/jls.v3i1.1310
Section
Research Articles