Double Burden of Malnutrition Among Migrants and Refugees in Developed Countries

A Mixed-Methods Systematic Review Protocol

  • Blessing Akombi-Inyang School of Population Health, University of New South Wales (UNSW), Sydney, Australia.
  • Md. Nazmul Huda School of Population Health, University of New South Wales (UNSW), Sydney, Australia.
  • Judith Byaruhanga School of Medicine and Public health, The University of Newcastle, Australia.
  • Andre Renzaho School of Social Sciences, Translational Health Research Institute Western Sydney University, Penrith, NSW, Australia.
Keywords: Double burden of malnutrition; undernutrition; overnutrition; micro-nutrient deficiency; non-communicable diseases; migrants; refugees


Background: The double burden of malnutrition (DBM) increases the risk of developing non-communicable diseases among migrant and refugee populations living in developed countries. This systematic review aims to examine the DBM among migrants and refugees in developed countries. It aims to appraise, synthesise, and summarise literature to create an evidence base that looks at multiple faces of DBM.

Methods/Design: This protocol is informed by the standard Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses Protocols (PRISMA-P) guidelines. A systematic review of peer-reviewed quantitative, qualitative and mixed-methods studies on DBM among migrants and refugees in developed countries will be undertaken. The review will include only studies published in English. Eight bibliographic databases will be searched: Ovid MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO, CINAHL, ProQuest, Scopus, PubMed, and web of science. Grey literature will also be searched. Studies that meet the inclusion criteria will be imported to Covidence. Screening for eligible studies will be conducted by two independent researchers. The quality of included studies will be appraised for risk of bias using validated tools. A narrative synthesis approach will be undertaken to report retrieved data.

Discussion: The protocol provides insight into the scope and parameters of the systematic review to be conducted.

Study Protocols