A Clinical Review on The Holism of Ophthalmology - The Associations Between Systemic Diseases and Ocular Conditions

  • Kah Hie Wong University of Hong Kong (Li Ka Shing Faculty of Medicine)
Keywords: Ophthalmology, Holism, Systemic Diseases


This is an up-to-date review on the holism of ophthalmology, covering the associations between eyes and systemic diseases. 

Ophthalmology teaching in the undergraduate medical curriculum is often very brief, which seems reasonable in view of other specialties such as internal medicine which have many life-and-death issues and numerous diseases across a wide spectrum of subspecialties. By contrast, ophthalmology gives the impression of being more specialized. However, the value which vision holds in people’s hearts is usually underestimated when compared to life or limb. Moreover, the severity of visual impairment in relation to its impact on daily life is also often not proportional; in other words, mild visual impairment may have a detrimental effect on daily life, functionally and emotionally.

This review aims to provide an overview of ocular pathologies that are associated with systemic diseases with emphasis on cardiovascular and autoimmune conditions. In addition, we discuss the potential role of retinal microvascular analysis in the prevention and management of cardiovascular diseases, which has been gaining attention in recent years.

Author Information

Kah Hie Wong, University of Hong Kong (Li Ka Shing Faculty of Medicine)

I am a final year medical student in the University of Hong Kong (HKU) who plan to devote my future career to ophthalmology. I am a holder of HKU Foundation Scholarships For Outstanding International Students annually from 2010 to 2015. I obtained the highest mark in the world in the November 2009 Cambridge International AS level examinations for Mathematics. I received the Best Student Award in Form 5 (2008).

I collaborated with the department of ophthalmology of Hong Kong Queen Mary Hospital and Hong Kong Eye Hospital in research works regarding central serous chorioretinopathy and Grave's Ophthalmopathy respectively. I frequently participated ophthalmology conferences to expand my exposure. I actively involved in Christianity, ophthalmology-related and other types of voluntary work. 

I participated in hall and church choirs as soprano during my university years.  I was a voluntary Physics student tutor of peer-to-peer programme during my Cambridge A Level's programme from 2009 to 2010. From 2004 to 2008, I was an active scout member and later assistant patrol leader and committee member. 

I obtained the open solo champion of Yamaha Organ Competition and had the chance to perform publicly during Yamaha Music Festival.

During leisure time, I enjoy singing, drawing, wall-climbing, playing organ and learning language (Mandarin, Foochow, English, Malay, Cantonese, Korean, Hokkien). 


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How to Cite
Wong, K. H. (2015, December 21). A Clinical Review on The Holism of Ophthalmology - The Associations Between Systemic Diseases and Ocular Conditions. Res Medica, 23(1), 38-47. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.2218/resmedica.v23i1.1240
Clinical Review Article