A Clinical Review on The Holism of Ophthalmology - The Associations Between Systemic Diseases and Ocular Conditions
This is an up-to-date review on the holism of ophthalmology, covering the associations between eyes and systemic diseases.
Ophthalmology teaching in the undergraduate medical curriculum is often very brief, which seems reasonable in view of other specialties such as internal medicine which have many life-and-death issues and numerous diseases across a wide spectrum of subspecialties. By contrast, ophthalmology gives the impression of being more specialized. However, the value which vision holds in people’s hearts is usually underestimated when compared to life or limb. Moreover, the severity of visual impairment in relation to its impact on daily life is also often not proportional; in other words, mild visual impairment may have a detrimental effect on daily life, functionally and emotionally.
This review aims to provide an overview of ocular pathologies that are associated with systemic diseases with emphasis on cardiovascular and autoimmune conditions. In addition, we discuss the potential role of retinal microvascular analysis in the prevention and management of cardiovascular diseases, which has been gaining attention in recent years.
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