Journal of Lithic Studies 2019-12-28T03:53:33+00:00 Otis Crandell Open Journal Systems <p>The Journal of Lithic Studies is a peer-reviewed open access journal which focuses on archaeological research into the manufacture and use of stone tools, as well as the origin and properties of the raw materials used in their production. The journal does not focus on any specific geographic region or time period.</p> A tanged point and two blade technologies from Rubha Port an t-Seilich, Isle of Islay, western Scotland 2019-10-07T13:32:59+01:00 Inger Marie Berg-Hansen Karen Wicks Steven Mithen <p>We describe a tanged point and a blade technology from Rubha Port an t-Seilich, Isle of Islay, Scotland that provides further support to a Late Pleistocene or Early Holocene presence in Scotland prior to the establishment of the narrow blade Mesolithic industry. The existing evidence for a Late Pleistocene or early Holocene presence comes from isolated finds of tanged points (Tiree, Shieldig, Brodgar), undated assemblages from disturbed contexts that are most likely Late Pleistocene in date (Howburn, Kilmefort Cave), and undated assemblages containing broad blade microliths (<em>e.g.</em>, Glenbatrick, Morton). This article provides a summary of recent excavations and the stratigraphy at Rubha Port an t-Seilich, and a detailed analysis the lithic blade blank production at the site, which is, we believe, the first application of a chaîne opératoire based approach to a Scottish assemblage. The study includes comparisons with contemporary assemblages from north-western Europe. The significance of the Rubha Port an t-Seilich finds is threefold: (1) the relative large size of the assemblage that allows a technological analysis; (2) the finds partially derive from a stratified context below a narrow blade assemblage, associated with radiocarbon dates 9301-7750 cal. BP; and (3) further excavation can increase the sample size and potentially expose an in situ Late Pleistocene or early Holocene cultural horizon.</p> 2019-03-15T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Preliminary archaeometric investigation on Middle Neolithic siliceous tools from Limba-Oarda de Jos (Transylvania, Romania) 2019-10-07T13:32:59+01:00 Mar Rey-Solé Corina Ionescu Marius Ciuta Marieta Muresan-Pop Viorica Simon <p>The present archaeometric study focuses on a set of archaeological siliceous lithic tools that are assigned to the early Vinča culture period (Vinča A and Vinča B1). They were found in several pit-houses at Limba-Oarda de Jos (SW Transylvania, Romania), an open settlement that has been dated to 5,405-5,310 cal. BCE, a period in the Middle Neolithic. A total of 322 retouched tools and <em>débitage</em> pieces were typologically and macroscopically investigated. From these, 20 pieces were analyzed by polarized light optical microscopy (OM) and 10 pieces were analyzed by Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) in order to identify compositional characteristics, define the petrographic type, and establish the spectral fingerprint of each material.</p> <p>Four petrographic types were discriminated: radiolarite, chert, fossiliferous chert, and siliceous limestone. Mineralogically, the tools primarily consist of a mass of microquartz and fibrous microquartz (called also ‘chalcedony’) associated with radiolarians remnants (in radiolarites); fossil shell fragments (in the fossiliferous chert); and limestone components, such as ooliths and pellets (in the siliceous limestone). All samples show distinct FTIR bands, most of which are assigned to microquartz, quartz, and fibrous microquartz. The deconvolution of the FTIR spectra in the 950-1300 cm<sup>-1</sup> domain reveals the contribution of several other phases, such as calcite and clay minerals.</p> <p>The results support the assumption that the tools made of chert, fossiliferous chert, and siliceous limestone were produced at the site from nodules that probably originated from the Upper Jurassic chert-bearing limestone that crops out nearby in the Trascău Mts. The tools made of radiolarite were most likely brought to the site as finished products from the Trascău Mts.</p> 2019-03-15T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## The hunter-gatherer site BES II (Jacaré-Guaçu River low terraces, central Sao Paulo state, Brazil): Interface with geomorphical and environmental fluctuations of the Pleistocene-Holocene transition 2019-12-26T03:34:34+00:00 Fabio Grossi Santos Pedro Michelutti Cheliz <p>The lithic site Boa Esperança II (BES II), in the São Paulo segment of the Brazilian Plateau, next to the boundary between the cities of Araraquara (SP) and Boa Esperança do Sul (SP), presents a collection of almost 2,000 lithic artifacts (predominantly chert and sandstone), being interpreted as a settlement of diversified functions with possibly continuous or successive occupation. In this work, we approach the site based on interface of its insertion in the regional physical-environmental context - with emphasis on the interface with relief frames, surface structure study and estimated geomorphic sequences of the alluvial plain of Jacaré-Guaçu river - and techno-typological analysis. It was verified that the BES II artifacts are distributed along vertical profiles and relief pictures lined by records that mark the transition from semi-arid conditions to others of increasing humidity, successive oscillations of base levels and modifications of fluvial regimes (ephemeral channels passing to perennial channels of different hydrological meandrings patterns), indicating that human occupation has dealt with conditions of quite distinct landscapes between the Late Pleistocene and the Holocene. Local lithic industry would have taken advantage of attributes derived from these modifications in the landscape over time - in particular the exposure of gravels of large river pebbles deposited by torrential ephemeral channels. The past&nbsp; abundance of raw material of fluvial origin would have contributed to the location of the site in the regional geomorphological context, as well as for a lithic assemblage based on the production of large unipolar flakes. We observed in the correlations between the position of artifacts, geomorphical and pedological data, OSL and Carbone-14 dates at archaeological levels, elements that allow us to discuss considering BES II as an archaeological site to integrate the interval of the Pleistocene-Holocene transition and to had interfaces with the geomorphological and environmental changes of such time. The archaeological implications of the issue and the fact that only one dating of photoluminescence has been reported from the deepest level of the site (basal gravel layer) emphasize the need for new, denser and more diversified studies.</p> 2019-03-15T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## The lithic assemblage from Lapa da Galinha (Alcanena, Portuguese Estremadura) and the “Cave Megalithism” phenomenon in the 4th and 3rd millennium BCE 2019-12-27T04:11:24+00:00 Daniel van Calker <p>The present work proposes to present the analysis results of the flaked stone artefacts from Lapa da Galinha, a cave necropolis, located in the Estremadura Limestone Massif, that is a classic example of the funerary practices of the 4<sup>th</sup> and 3<sup>rd</sup> millennium BCE. The excavation dates back to 1908, and it was performed by members of the current National Museum of Archaeology, resulting in an extensive votive ensemble, associated with a minimum number of 70 burials. The evident collective nature of the burials, the votive ensemble and the rituals there identified emphasise its “Cave Megalithism” character, an expression that invokes only one of the many facets of the complex phenomenon that is Megalithism. Since the Megalithic funerary structures, such as natural caves, are utilized over a long period of time, it’s not easy- but not impossible- to reclaim in full, the events that took place. Focusing on the flaked stone artefacts, the main goal of this text is to contribute to the reconstruction of the belief system that characterizes the Neolithic and Chalcolithic communities from this region. Hence, the morpho-technological criteria, that followed previously established standards, and raw material analysis of the artefactual categories, even on a macroscopic level, were absolutely essential for us to suggest an extensive diachrony of the funerary use of the natural cave With that in mind, we reflected on the importance of the transformations that occur within the material culture exposed throughout the text and their chronological meaning, but also on the true potential of this artefactual category as a tool to build a solid perspective regarding the symbolism inherent to these funeral practices.</p> 2019-03-15T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Errett H. Callahan (1937-2019): Researcher, flintknapper, and artist 2019-12-02T02:48:22+00:00 Hugo Gabriel Nami <p>Errett Hargrove Callahan Jr. was a standout American pioneer in experimental archaeology, lithic technology, and replicative experimental studies. Errett, son of Errett Callahan, Sr. and Mary Ingraham Callahan, was born on December 17th, 1937 in Lynchburg, Virginia, where he lived until his death on May 29th, 2019. He leaves his son Tim, daughter Melody, and three grandchildren, Chris, Megan, and Ryan.</p> 2019-06-15T00:00:00+01:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Bibliography of Dr. Errett Hargrove Callahan Jr. 2019-12-28T03:53:33+00:00 Otis N. Crandell <p class="abstract">The following is a bibliography of the works of Errett H. Callahan and works about him. This is has been written to accompany the biography written by Hugo Nami (this issue).</p> 2019-06-15T00:00:00+01:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement##