Eicosanoid turnover (version 2019.5) in the IUPHAR/BPS Guide to Pharmacology Database
Eicosanoids are 20-carbon fatty acids, where the usual focus is the polyunsaturated analogue arachidonic acid and its metabolites. Arachidonic acid is thought primarily to derive from phospholipase A2 action on membrane phosphatidylcholine, and may be re-cycled to form phospholipid through conjugation with coenzyme A and subsequently glycerol derivatives. Oxidative metabolism of arachidonic acid is conducted through three major enzymatic routes: cyclooxygenases; lipoxygenases and cytochrome P450-like epoxygenases, particularly CYP2J2. Isoprostanes are structural analogues of the prostanoids (hence the nomenclature D-, E-, F-isoprostanes and isothromboxanes), which are produced in the presence of elevated free radicals in a non-enzymatic manner, leading to suggestions for their use as biomarkers of oxidative stress. Molecular targets for their action have yet to be defined.
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