Endocannabinoid turnover (version 2019.4) in the IUPHAR/BPS Guide to Pharmacology Database
The principle endocannabinoids are 2-acylglycerol esters, such as 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG), and N-acylethanolamines, such as anandamide (N-arachidonoylethanolamine, AEA). The glycerol esters and ethanolamides are synthesised and hydrolysed by parallel, independent pathways. Mechanisms for release and re-uptake of endocannabinoids are unclear, although potent and selective inhibitors of facilitated diffusion of endocannabinoids across cell membranes have been developed . FABP5 (Q01469) has been suggested to act as a canonical intracellular endocannabinoid transporter in vivo . For the generation of 2-arachidonoylglycerol, the key enzyme involved is diacylglycerol lipase (DAGL), whilst several routes for anandamide synthesis have been described, the best characterized of which involves N-acylphosphatidylethanolamine-phospholipase D (NAPE-PLD, ). A transacylation enzyme which forms N-acylphosphatidylethanolamines has recently been identified as a cytosolic enzyme, PLA2G4E (Q3MJ16) . In vitro experiments indicate that the endocannabinoids are also substrates for oxidative metabolism via cyclooxygenase, lipoxygenase and cytochrome P450 enzyme activities [4, 16, 51].
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