Pattern recognition receptors (version 2019.4) in the IUPHAR/BPS Guide to Pharmacology Database
Pattern Recognition Receptors (PRRs, ) (nomenclature as agreed by NC-IUPHAR sub-committee on Pattern Recognition Receptors, ) participate in the innate immune response to microbial agents, the stimulation of which leads to activation of intracellular enzymes and regulation of gene transcription. PRRs express multiple leucine-rich regions to bind a range of microbially-derived ligands, termed PAMPs or pathogen-associated molecular patterns or endogenous ligands, termed DAMPS or damage-associated molecular patterns. These include peptides, carbohydrates, peptidoglycans, lipoproteins, lipopolysaccharides, and nucleic acids. PRRs include both cell-surface and intracellular proteins. PRRs may be divided into signalling-associated members, identified here, and endocytic members, the function of which appears to be to recognise particular microbial motifs for subsequent cell attachment, internalisation and destruction. Some are involved in inflammasome formation, and modulation of IL-1β cleavage and secretion, and others in the initiation of the type I interferon response.
PRRs included in the Guide To PHARMACOLOGY are:
Catalytic PRRs (see links below this overview)
Toll-like receptors (TLRs)
Nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain, leucine-rich repeat containing receptors (NLRs, also known as NOD (Nucleotide oligomerisation domain)-like receptors)
RIG-I-like receptors (RLRs)
Caspase 4 and caspase 5
Absent in melanoma (AIM)-like receptors (ALRs)
C-type lectin-like receptors (CLRs)
Other pattern recognition receptors
Advanced glycosylation end-product specific receptor (RAGE)
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