Adenosine turnover (version 2019.4) in the IUPHAR/BPS Guide to Pharmacology Database
A multifunctional, ubiquitous molecule, adenosine acts at cell-surface G protein-coupled receptors, as well as numerous enzymes, including protein kinases and adenylyl cyclase. Extracellular adenosine is thought to be produced either by export or by metabolism, predominantly through ecto-5’-nucleotidase activity (also producing inorganic phosphate). It is inactivated either by extracellular metabolism via adenosine deaminase (also producing ammonia) or, following uptake by nucleoside transporters, via adenosine deaminase or adenosine kinase (requiring ATP as co-substrate). Intracellular adenosine may be produced by cytosolic 5’-nucleotidases or through S-adenosylhomocysteine hydrolase (also producing L-homocysteine).
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