3A. Estrogen receptors (version 2019.4) in the IUPHAR/BPS Guide to Pharmacology Database
Estrogen receptor (ER) activity regulates diverse physiological processes via transcriptional modulation of target genes. The selection of target genes and the magnitude of the response, be it induction or repression, are determined by many factors, including the effect of the hormone ligand and DNA binding on ER structural conformation, and the local cellular regulatory environment. The cellular environment defines the specific complement of DNA enhancer and promoter elements present and the availability of coregulators to form functional transcription complexes. Together, these determinants control the resulting biological response.
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