Adenosine receptors (version 2019.4) in the IUPHAR/BPS Guide to Pharmacology Database

  • Bertil B. Fredholm Karolinska Institutet
  • Bruno G. Frenguelli University of Warwick
  • Rebecca Hills University of Edinburgh
  • Adriaan P. IJzerman Leiden University
  • Kenneth A. Jacobson National Institutes of Health
  • Karl-Norbert Klotz Universität Würzburg
  • Joel Linden La Jolla Institute for Allergy and Immunology
  • Christa E. Müller Universität Bonn
  • Ulrich Schwabe Pharmakologisches Institut der Universität Heidelberg
  • Gary L. Stiles Duke University


Adenosine receptors (nomenclature as agreed by the NC-IUPHAR Subcommittee on Adenosine Receptors [103]) are activated by the endogenous ligand adenosine (potentially inosine also at A3 receptors). Crystal structures for the antagonist-bound [146, 305, 213, 55], agonist-bound [362, 196, 198] and G protein-bound A2A adenosine receptors [43] have been described. The structures of an antagonist-bound A1 receptor [123] and an adenosine-bound A1 receptor-Gi complex [80] have been resolved by cryo-electronmicroscopy. Another structure of an antagonist-bound A1 receptor obtained with X-ray crystallography has also been reported [51].
How to Cite
Fredholm, B. B., Frenguelli, B. G., Hills, R., IJzerman, A. P., Jacobson, K. A., Klotz, K.-N., Linden, J., Müller, C. E., Schwabe, U. and Stiles, G. L. (2019) “Adenosine receptors (version 2019.4) in the IUPHAR/BPS Guide to Pharmacology Database”, IUPHAR/BPS Guide to Pharmacology CITE, 2019(4). doi: 10.2218/gtopdb/F3/2019.4.