IUPHAR/BPS Guide to Pharmacology CITE

Class A Orphans (version 2020.5) in the IUPHAR/BPS Guide to Pharmacology Database

Stephen P.H. Alexander1, Jim Battey2, Helen E. Benson3, Richard V. Benya4, Tom I. Bonner5, Anthony P. Davenport6, Khuraijam Dhanachandra Singh7, Satoru Eguchi8, Anthony Harmar3, Nick Holliday1, Robert T. Jensen2, Sadashiva Karnik7, Evi Kostenis9, Wen Chiy Liew3, Amy E. Monaghan3, Chido Mpamhanga10, Richard Neubig11, Adam J. Pawson12, Jean-Philippe Pin13, Joanna L. Sharman3, Michael Spedding14, Eliot Spindel15, Leigh Stoddart16, Laura Storjohann17, Walter G. Thomas18, Kalyan Tirupula7 and Patrick Vanderheyden19
  1. University of Nottingham, UK
  2. National Institutes of Health, USA
  3. University of Edinburgh, UK
  4. University of Illinois at Chicago, USA
  5. National Institute of Mental Health, USA
  6. University of Cambridge, UK
  7. Cleveland Clinic Lerner Research Institute, USA
  8. Temple University, USA
  9. University of Bonn, Germany
  10. LifeArc, UK
  11. Michigan State University, USA
  12. The University of Edinburgh, UK
  13. Université de Montpellier, France
  14. Spedding Research Solutions SARL, France
  15. Oregon Health & Science University, USA
  16. University of Glasgow, UK
  17. University of Utah, USA
  18. University of Queensland, Australia
  19. Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Belgium


Table 1 lists a number of putative GPCRs identified by NC-IUPHAR [194], for which preliminary evidence for an endogenous ligand has been published, or for which there exists a potential link to a disease, or disorder. These GPCRs have recently been reviewed in detail [150]. The GPCRs in Table 1 are all Class A, rhodopsin-like GPCRs. Class A orphan GPCRs not listed in Table 1 are putative GPCRs with as-yet unidentified endogenous ligands.

Table 1: Class A orphan GPCRs with putative endogenous ligands


In addition the orphan receptors GPR18, GPR55 and GPR119 which are reported to respond to endogenous agents analogous to the endogenous cannabinoid ligands have been grouped together (GPR18, GPR55 and GPR119).


This is a citation summary for Class A Orphans in the Guide to Pharmacology database (GtoPdb). It exists purely as an adjunct to the database to facilitate the recognition of citations to and from the database by citation analyzers. Readers will almost certainly want to visit the relevant sections of the database which are given here under database links.

GtoPdb is an expert-driven guide to pharmacological targets and the substances that act on them. GtoPdb is a reference work which is most usefully represented as an on-line database. As in any publication this work should be appropriately cited, and the papers it cites should also be recognized. This document provides a citation for the relevant parts of the database, and also provides a reference list for the research cited by those parts.

Please note that the database version for the citations given in GtoPdb are to the most recent preceding version in which the family or its subfamilies and targets were substantially changed. The links below are to the current version. If you need to consult the cited version, rather than the most recent version, please contact the GtoPdb curators.

Database links

Class A Orphans
Introduction to Class A Orphans
            BB3 receptor


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