IUPHAR/BPS Guide to Pharmacology CITE

Chemokine receptors (version 2019.4) in the IUPHAR/BPS Guide to Pharmacology Database

Francoise Bachelerie1, Adit Ben-Baruch2, Israel F. Charo3, Christophe Combadiere4, Reinhold Förster5, Joshua M. Farber6, Gerard J. Graham7, Rebecca Hills8, Richard Horuk9, Massimo Locati10, Andrew D. Luster11, Alberto Mantovani10, Kouji Matsushima12, Amy E. Monaghan8, Georgios L. Moschovakis5, Philip M. Murphy13, Robert J. B. Nibbs7, Hisayuki Nomiyama14, Joost J. Oppenheim15, Christine A. Power16, Amanda E. I. Proudfoot 16, Mette M. Rosenkilde17, Antal Rot18, Silvano Sozzani19, Marcus Thelen20, Osamu Yoshie21 and Albert Zlotnik22
  1. Institut Pasteur, France
  2. Tel Aviv University, Israel
  3. Gladstone Institutes, USA
  4. INSERM, France
  5. Hannover Medical School, Germany
  6. National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, USA
  7. University of Glasgow, UK
  8. University of Edinburgh, UK
  9. Berlex Laboratories, USA
  10. University of Milan, Italy
  11. Massachusetts General Hospital, USA
  12. University of Tokyo, Japan
  13. National Institutes of Health, USA
  14. Kumamoto University Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Japan
  15. Frederick National Laboratory for Cancer Research, USA
  16. Merck Serono Geneva Research Center, Switzerland
  17. Panum Instituttet, Denmark
  18. University of Birmingham, UK
  19. University of Brescia, Italy
  20. Institute for Research in Biomedicine, Switzerland
  21. Kinki University, Japan
  22. University of California Irvine, USA


Chemokine receptors (nomenclature as agreed by the NC-IUPHAR Subcommittee on Chemokine Receptors [417, 416, 31]) comprise a large subfamily of 7TM proteins that bind one or more chemokines, a large family of small cytokines typically possessing chemotactic activity for leukocytes. Additional hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic roles have been identified for many chemokines in the areas of embryonic development, immune cell proliferation, activation and death, viral infection, and as antibiotics, among others. Chemokine receptors can be divided by function into two main groups: G protein-coupled chemokine receptors, which mediate leukocyte trafficking, and "Atypical chemokine receptors", which may signal through non-G protein-coupled mechanisms and act as chemokine scavengers to downregulate inflammation or shape chemokine gradients [31].

Chemokines in turn can be divided by structure into four subclasses by the number and arrangement of conserved cysteines. CC (also known as β-chemokines; n= 28), CXC (also known as α-chemokines; n= 17) and CX3C (n= 1) chemokines all have four conserved cysteines, with zero, one and three amino acids separating the first two cysteines respectively. C chemokines (n= 2) have only the second and fourth cysteines found in other chemokines. Chemokines can also be classified by function into homeostatic and inflammatory subgroups. Most chemokine receptors are able to bind multiple high-affinity chemokine ligands, but the ligands for a given receptor are almost always restricted to the same structural subclass. Most chemokines bind to more than one receptor subtype. Receptors for inflammatory chemokines are typically highly promiscuous with regard to ligand specificity, and may lack a selective endogenous ligand. G protein-coupled chemokine receptors are named acccording to the class of chemokines bound, whereas ACKR is the root acronym for atypical chemokine receptors [32]. There can be substantial cross-species differences in the sequences of both chemokines and chemokine receptors, and in the pharmacology and biology of chemokine receptors. Endogenous and microbial non-chemokine ligands have also been identified for chemokine receptors. Many chemokine receptors function as HIV co-receptors, but CCR5 is the only one demonstrated to play an essential role in HIV/AIDS pathogenesis. The tables include both standard chemokine receptor names [657] and aliases.


This is a citation summary for Chemokine receptors in the Guide to Pharmacology database (GtoPdb). It exists purely as an adjunct to the database to facilitate the recognition of citations to and from the database by citation analyzers. Readers will almost certainly want to visit the relevant sections of the database which are given here under database links.

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Database links

Chemokine receptors
Introduction to Chemokine receptors


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