IUPHAR/BPS Guide to Pharmacology CITE

Adenosine receptors (version 2019.4) in the IUPHAR/BPS Guide to Pharmacology Database

Bertil B. Fredholm1, Bruno G. Frenguelli2, Rebecca Hills3, Adriaan P. IJzerman4, Kenneth A. Jacobson5, Karl-Norbert Klotz6, Joel Linden7, Christa E. Müller8, Ulrich Schwabe9 and Gary L. Stiles10
  1. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden
  2. University of Warwick, UK
  3. University of Edinburgh, UK
  4. Leiden University, The Netherlands
  5. National Institutes of Health, USA
  6. Universität Würzburg, Germany
  7. La Jolla Institute for Allergy and Immunology, USA
  8. Universität Bonn, Germany
  9. Pharmakologisches Institut der Universität Heidelberg, Germany
  10. Duke University, USA


Adenosine receptors (nomenclature as agreed by the NC-IUPHAR Subcommittee on Adenosine Receptors [103]) are activated by the endogenous ligand adenosine (potentially inosine also at A3 receptors). Crystal structures for the antagonist-bound [146, 305, 213, 55], agonist-bound [362, 196, 198] and G protein-bound A2A adenosine receptors [43] have been described. The structures of an antagonist-bound A1 receptor [123] and an adenosine-bound A1 receptor-Gi complex [80] have been resolved by cryo-electronmicroscopy. Another structure of an antagonist-bound A1 receptor obtained with X-ray crystallography has also been reported [51].


This is a citation summary for Adenosine receptors in the Guide to Pharmacology database (GtoPdb). It exists purely as an adjunct to the database to facilitate the recognition of citations to and from the database by citation analyzers. Readers will almost certainly want to visit the relevant sections of the database which are given here under database links.

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Database links

Adenosine receptors
Introduction to Adenosine receptors
            A1 receptor
            A2A receptor
            A2B receptor
            A3 receptor


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